www.Barisannasional.org.my – The country was ruled by the system of democracy after Malaya’s Independence on 31 August 1957. It was regarded as the legacy of the United Kingdom on Malayan and Malaysia’s political development in 1963. The setting up of a parliamentary system that acts as the elected popular representatives. The electoral system will make up the government for the period of five years the party that received the majority of seats in the parliament. The democratic party structure is one of the major aspects of the electoral cycle in Malaysia.
Political parties became an organ for sustainable democratic transition in Malaysian politics. Malaysia ‘s democratic commitment to functioning political parties was further strengthened by the communist threat to the government after independence. Malaysia‘s democratic structure succeeds in creating a broad alliance coalition by uniting political parties in the region.
In 1952 the “Alliance” (Perikatan) was formed, before Malaysia became autonomous from Great Britain. On 30 October 1957, the Coalition was recognized officially as a party. The Coalition was made up of United Malaysian National Organization (UMNO), the Chinese Maltese Association (MCA) and the MIC.
The three major races of Malaysia, Malaysia , China and the Indians, were such groups. Later on, the Alliance was disbanded and in April 1974 the National Front was replaced as a major “Barisan Nasional.” The Barisan Nasional membership comprises of formerly Coalition and other recent elements, Party Bersatu Sabah (PBS), United People’s Party Sarawak (SUPP), National Party Sarawak (SNAP) and other groups
The Nasional membership involves:
The indigenous people of Sabah and Sarawak were portrayed by these groups. This paper would address Barisan Nasional ‘s roots by explaining why it was created. This paper also analyses the coalition ‘s effect on Malaysian politics.
Reasons for the formation of Barisan Nasional
Tun Abdul Razak Hussein, second Prime Minister of Malaysia, came up with the concept that a broader coalition should be created to substitute the Perikatan Alliance with the intention of integrating the bariser Nasion in other component parties. Basically, with its predecessor, the Alliance the Barisan Nasional had no difference, except the Barisan was much greater. The Barisan Nasional was made up of 9 mostly Malaysia ‘s three major political parties, formerly under the Alliance, UMNO, the MCA and the MIC, at the time of its formation. In the 1974 Barisan Nasional Manifesto It was stated.
Then the existing government entered other groups. The IPM, the Gerakan Rakiat Malaysia (Gerakan) Group and Parti Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB) were among the countries concerned. Barisan Nasional was left in 1974 by the PAS, the Islamic Ruling Party of Kelantan and the largest UMNO rival. In addition to the Western Malaysian parties, in Sarawak and Sabah in particular, the Barisan Nasional was supported by the East Malaysian political parties. 1974, after the Sarawak National Party (SNAP), an iban-based faction becoming a component of the alliance, Barisan Nasional was expanded.
In the Barisan Nasional to establish harmony among the various races in Malaysia, Tun Abdul Razak agreed to involve the parties. This has been done to avoid racial upheavals. The 13 The Disturbances, which occur on the races between the Malaysians and China just days after the general election. This placed Malaysia in an emergency state, for the first time since the country’s first Communist emergency in 1948. The nation was eventually governed by Tun Abdul Razak himself, who then acted as Malaysia’s Deputy Prime Minister.
The accident was decided, not yet, by Tun Abdul Razak and other Malaysian leaders. Barisan Nasional could pull together and harmonize races in Malaysia by forming a broad unified coalition of different political parties. This was shown by the results of the 1974 general election in which the Barisan National won 135 of the 154 seats in Malaysian parliament.8 This demonstrates that, thanks to its plurality seat in Parliament and its position in preserving peace and unity in a multiracial world, Barisan Nasial ‘s establishment had given Malaysia political and social gain.
Another cause of the establishment of Barisan Nasional by Tun Abdul Razak to replace the Alliance is its protection of Malaysian rights and privileges. He saw the alliance as a valuable refuge from the reaction of failed UMNO policies at the right moment. The Barisan Nasional government shifted gradually the mindset of the two races. As stated before, the alliance aimed at adding political peace “to the benefit of the government coalition in terms of more successful intellectual consensus.”
Tun Abdul Razak’s motives in establishing Barisan Nasional:
The plan to establish Barisan Nasional began during the time of the administration of NationalOperations Council and after the 1969 Federal Election, where the opposition had huge successand the Alliance failed to maintain majority seats in the Parliament.11 This made Tun Abdul Razakto plan for restructuring the Alliance. He thought that he could no longer depend on the Allianceto guarantee firm rule and stability.
To achieve majority votes in the election, Tun Abdul Razakneeded support and membership from Chinese political parties, mainly the MCA, which TunAbdul Razak takes opportunity of the MCA’s fear of another loss in future election, which led tohis success of gaining Chinese representation in the coalition.
Tun Abdul Razak believes too that the government will protect its administration and dissuade the opposition parties by forming an alliance with opposition parties, besides securing big votes during the elections. The current Prime Minister started to cement his position in 1970, when the Tun Abdul Razak became the second Prime Minister of Malaysia since his departure. Abdul Rahman.
It saw that almost half the Federal parliament ‘s seats and its control over three Penang, Perak and Kalantan states, and two municipalities of Georgetown, Penang and Ipoh, in Perak, had strengthened the opposition ‘s position. In the case of Sabah and Sarawak, Tun Abdul Razak was expected to extend the Barisan Nasional to include eastern Malaysian political parties.
Barisan Nasional was not expanding in Sabah because the Alliance was affiliated with all parties, including the opposition one. The situation gave Tun Razak the opportunity to expand the Barisan Nasional in the East-Malaysian states , especially the Sabah, without any hindrance. Sabah was then under the autocratic government of Tun Datu Mustapha Harun which was Sabahâ s third Chief Minister.
In Sarawak, when its members won 10 out of 4 seats at the Sarawak Legislative Assembly, the Alliance faced challenges in the elections. 24 This naturally created problems for the Alliance in building a coalition with political parties in Sarawak. Finally, Tun Abdul Razak could bring Sarawak to the Nasional Barisan.
Sarawak Alliance participants were joined by a Pesaka Bumiputera Bersatu (PBB) affiliate, which at the time was headed by Tun Abdul Rahman Yakub, and Sarawak Unified People’s Party (SUPP), headed by Tan Sri Ong Kee Hui. 25 The two parties were ethnic Iban and the Chinese minority in the state. The alliance will be able to secure the majority of votes necessary to control the Sarawak State Assembly by integrating those two party members into its affiliates.
Tun Abdul Razak had achieved the highest level in Malaysia for the Malaisian government by forming Barisan Nasional. All the Prime Ministers of Malaysia have been selected from the Malaysians since the Tunku age Abdul Rahman to the present time. Also, on choice for the Prime Minister will the non-Malays and the non-Bumiputera occupy ministerial offices. This proves that special rights and privileges were guaranteed by the establishment of Barisan Nasional.
The Barisan Nasional intended, by way of the inclusion of the opposition mostly non-Malay political parties and even political parties from Sabah and Sarawak, to restore unity and racial harmony to Malaysia. The alliance contributed to closer relations between Malaysia’s political parties. Yet nobody knows about the true reason behind the Alliance’s breakup and Barisan Nasional’s establishment. On the basis of evidence, Tun Abdul Razak has always used this alliance to win plurality and Federal Parliament seats by a mixture of votes.
The opposition influences gradually decreased, and Barisan Nasional took advantage of these opportunities to strengthen its “grip” and to maintain control over Malaysian politics.
This was a serious danger to the government that Tun Abdul Razak treated. To secure his place and his presidency, he needed a broader coalition. Through forming the Barisan Nasional, he felt that it would reinforce, not only the relations among his parties and the opposition parties, but also the coalition would enable him to criticize in the coalition ‘s policy and the decorum of the alliance and away from public viewpoints the policy of the Federal Government.
Its goal is to improve its government by the formation of Barisan Nasional in order to get rid of criticism by opposition citizens who offer the federal administration a bad face. That has been demonstrated by Tun Abdul Razak. As chief of Barisan Nasional, he ensures that the Barisan nominees, in particular those from UMNO, occupy important cabinet positions.
However, Tun Abdul Razak always claimed that it would have a beneficial impact by forming Barisan Nasional which would deter political unrest within the Federation. This allows the Federal Government to focus on its national development policies.
In conclusion, Barisan Nasional was set up to maintain peace and harmony among Malaysia’s different races. Malaysia has taken measures to create a strengthened alliance replacing Malaysia’s second leader, Tun Abdul Razak, successor to Tunku Abdul Rahman. It was created by the invitation to the political parties to support the coalition to ensure the presence of the coalition in the States of East and West Malaysia. the alliance will be renamed “Nasional Barisan.”
Thus, Barisan Nassional components Parties have not only tried to ensure that all the representatives of Barisan Nasional have their seating and positions as leaders of the State legislatures but also as Federal Ministers.
However, the plan to divide control by the Coalition and later Barisan Nasional has been effective in eleven general elections since 1957. The continued performance of Barisan Nasional in winning parliamentary majorities and also of State legislatures in coalition territories meant that all parties involved should plan and be prepared to share power. The effectiveness of this power sharing system demonstrates how successful the framework of Malaysia is in maintaining ethnic peace.
To conclude, Barisan Nasional was established in order to retain peace and unity between the various races in Malaysia. Malaysia’s second prime minister, Tun Abdul Razak, successor of Tunku Abdul Rahman, has taken steps to build an enhanced Alliance replacement coalition. The alliance will be renamed “Nasional Barisan.” The formation of Barisan Nasional was carried out by inviting the political parties to support the coalition that secured the coalition’s presence in the states of East and West Malaysia.
In this way Barisan Nassional components Parties have attempted not only as leaders of the State Legislatures but even ministers of the Federal government to ensure that all members of Barisan Nasional have seats and roles.
Nevertheless, in eleven general elections since 1957, the power sharing formula through the Alliance and later Barisan Nasional has proved successful. Barisan Nasional’s continuing success in securing plurality seats in the Parliament and even State legislatures in the territories of the alliance assured the preparation and the willingness of all component parties to share influence. The effectiveness of this scheme of power sharing illustrates the efficacy of the Malaysian structure as a means of maintaining ethnic peace.
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