cpc.people.com.cn – The Communist Party of China (CCP) is the governing and dominant political force in modern China, formally recognized as China’s People’s Republic. Since its founding nearly a century ago, the CCP has maintained a political monopoly, overseeing the rapid economic growth of the country and rising as a global power while confronting challenges at home and abroad.
He has consolidated his control over the infamously opaque party since President Xi Jinping came to power in 2012, with many experts calling him the most influential Chinese leader since Mao Zedong. In 2017, the CCP reaffirmed Xi’s dominance and elevated new officials to help him set the agenda for the world’s second-largest economy.
Origins and Power Structure:
In 1921 the CCP was founded on Marxist-Leninist ideals, influenced by the Russian Revolution. Tensions between the Communist Party and its main rival, the Kuomintang, erupted into a civil war from which the Communists in 1949 emerged victorious. Amid market reforms in China in the late 1970s, the current Chinese regime, like those in Cuba, North Korea and Laos, appears to be a Leninist framework.
The party is relying on three pillars: personnel control, propaganda and the People’s Liberation Army. About 70 per cent of its nearly 90 million members are men; farmers, herdsmen and fishermen make up approximately 30% of its membership.
Each five years, the CCP convenes its National Party Congress (NPC) to formulate new policies and appoint the Central Committee comprising of 370 representatives and alternates including legislators, senior regulatory officials, regional leaders, and military officers. The Central Committee acts as a kind of board of directors for the CCP and has the mandate of selecting the Politburo, which has 25 members.
In turn, the Politburo elects the Politburo Standing Committee, which functions as the epicentre of the power and leadership of the CCP by means of backroom negotiations. There are currently seven members on the Standing Committee but membership ranged from five to nine people.
Xi, who took over from Hu Jintao in 2012, as General Secretary sits atop the structure. He is also the president and military leader, exerting tremendous influence in setting government policy. The President, Li Keqiang, presides over the State Council, the equivalent to a cabinet in China.
Forging Foreign Policy Strategy:
The economic prosperity of China has sparked concern that it will use its power to dominate Asia and expand its global influence. Indeed, Beijing has undertaken a comprehensive modernization of its [PDF] military, reserving $177 billion for spending on defense in 2019. It has also spent trillions of dollars through its huge Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) in countries across Africa , Asia, Europe and the Middle East.
With China’s growing military capabilities, the country was able to adopt a more assertive maritime strategy. It opposes U.S. efforts to strengthen its security relations with Indo-Pacific allies including Japan and Vietnam, and is regularly opposing U.S. sales of weapons to Taiwan.
The Communist Party of China (CPC):
The Communist Party is China’s only political force in government.
The Communist Party of China (CPC) was founded in 1921 and created the People’s Republic of China in 1949 through years of armed struggle.
Today the CPC has more than 60 million supporters in nearly 3 million local organisations (the Group had 69.6 million members at the end of 2004).
The CPC established formal (through party elections) and informal (appointed by the higher-level organization) organizations within the Chinese government and at different levels and walks of life in the country.
When the National Congress is not in session, the Central Committee executes National Congress decisions, directs much of the Party’s activity, and serves the CPC outside the State.
Members and alternate Central Committee members must have a standing Party of at least five years.
The number of Central Committee representatives and substitute representatives shall be determined by the National Congress. If Central Committee members’ positions are empty, alternate members shall fill the vacancies in due order, based on the number of votes they receive.
A Central Committee plenary session shall be conducted at least once a year by the National Commit ‘s Legislative Bureau.
The Department of Affairs, the Executive Committee, the Attorney General, the National Political Council and the Secretariat
The Central Committee ‘s leading organs are the Politbureau, its Standing Committee and the Central Committee’s General Secretary.
The Politbureau of the Central Committee of the Party, the Working Committee of the Legislative Bureau and the General Secretary of the Central Committee shall be chosen by the Central Committee plenary session.
The Central Committee’s general secretary will be chosen from among the leaders of the Central Committee’s Standing Committee of the Legislative Bureau.
When the Central Committee plenum is not in session, the Central Committee Political Bureau and its Standing Committee shall conduct Central Committee duties and powers.
The Central Committee General Secretary is responsible for organizing meetings of both the Central Committee Political Bureau and its Standing Committee, and is in charge of the Central Committee Secretariat ‘s function.
The Party’s main political lead agency is the National Security Committee.
The Central Committee shall agree upon the representatives of the party’s Main Military Board.
The Central Committee Secretariat is the Legislative Bureau’s governing agency, and its Standing Committee. The representatives shall be elected by the Standing Committee of the Central Committee Political Bureau and approved by the Central Committee plenary session.
The members of the Central Committee chosen by each Central Committee shall proceed to take over the day-to-day operation of the Party until the next National Congress is in session, before the next Central Committee elects a new central leadership body and central members.
Local organizations of the Party:
Community congresses are conducted every five years from various states, administrative counties, towns directly under the central government, cities with districts and regional prefectures.
Local Group congresses at various levels are called in at the same stage by Community committees. They can be kept in advance or delayed at the next higher stage under certain circumstances, with the consent of the committee.
The number of representatives from local party congresses at different rates and the form of election was determined by Party committees at the same stage and sent for approval to the Central committee at the next higher level.
When congresses are not in session, local Party committees at various rates carry out Party organizations directives at the next higher level and Party congress decisions at the same stage, lead local research, and send daily work to the higher Party committee.
Group commissions in different districts, autonomous regions, central-government towns, district-divided cities and autonomous prefectures are chosen for a five-year period. Leaders and alternative leaders of such bodies will have at least five years of Party membership.
Group councils in counties (banners), independent regions, district-free communities and wards within a city’s control are chosen for a five year period. Leaders and alternative representatives of such boards will have at least three years of Party membership.
When local Party congresses are conducted in advance or delayed at various stages, the term of service of the committees that they nominate shall be modified accordingly.
The committee at the next higher stage shall determine the number of representatives and substitute leaders of local Party committees at various stages , respectively. The positions vacancies for leaders of local party committees at various rates shall be filled in due order by alternative candidates according to the number of votes cast.
Plenary meetings at separate tiers of local Party committees shall be conducted at least twice a year.
The plenary sessions of district Party committees at various levels nominate their working committees, secretaries and deputy secretaries and send the findings to the Party committee for ratification at the next higher stage.
The standing committees and central Party committees at various rates shall exercise the duties and responsibilities of the committees while the committees’ plenums are not in session.
We appear to remain in charge of the day-to-day duties until the current select committees are formed when the next congress is in session.
National Party committees and bodies similar to national commissions within the framework of many states, autonomous counties and cities are Party departments of provinces and autonomous regions. They are approved by provincial and autonomous regional commissions and are responsible for the function of the areas concerned.
Grassroots organizations of the Party:
A grassroots Party organisation shall be formed in industries, rural areas, associations, colleges, science research institutes, communities, companies of the People’s Liberation Army and other specific units on the mainland where three or more complete members of the Party are present.
The grassroots Party organizations are Party bastions of unity within grassroots social groups and the base of all the effort and success of the Party in war. Grassroots Party organisations set up grassroots Party committees, general Party branch committees and Party branch committees, respectively, in compliance with job criteria and number of Party representatives, upon ratification from the next highest Party organisation. Grassroots Political commissions are chosen by Group delegate assemblies or congresses. Branch committees of the Central Committee and branch committees of the Union shall be chosen by assembly of Party leaders.
Grassroots Party commissions are chosen for a three or four-year period. The regional committees of the General Committee and the regional committees of the Group shall be chosen for a two or three year period.
The lists of the secretaries and vice-secretaries chosen by grassroots Party committees, general branch committees and district committees shall be forwarded for ratification to the Party organisation at the next higher stage.
Leading Party groups:
Within the leading bodies of central and local state institutions, people’s groups, economic and cultural organisations, and other non-party groups, a leading Party community can be formed.
The duties of the leading Party groups are to accept as their primary duty the execution of the Party’s position, values and policies; to negotiate and agree on significant problems within their own department; to cooperate with non-Party officials and masses in the execution of the tasks delegated by the Party and the State; and to coordinate the activity of the Party organizations of the departments and the work units directly under them.
The Party Committee which approves the formation of the leading party group shall select members of a leading party group. The leading faction of the Party comprises of a president and vice secretaries.
The leading party group will obey the Party committee that supports its establishment.
Discipline inspection organizations of the Party:
The Party’s training oversight bodies comprise of the Central Training Oversight Commission, central Party examination commissions at different levels and grassroots Party inspection commissions.
The General Training Review Commission works under the control of the National Party Committee.
The local party commissions for discipline inspection at various levels and the grass-roots party commissions for discipline inspection work on the same point under the joint leadership of the central committee and the regional discipline inspection commission at the next higher level.
At the same point, the concept of every Party discipline inspection commission equals that of the Party committee.
The plenary session of the Central Committee for Discipline Review shall nominate its standing body, chairman and deputy secretaries and shall give this to the Party’s Central Committee for approval.
The Standing Committee and the Secretary and Deputy Secretaries are chosen by the Plenary Sessions of National Party Discipline Examination Commissions at various stages, and the resolutions are approved by the Party Committee at the same point and submitted to the Party Committee at the next higher level for agreement.
In the light of specific situations, where a disciplinary inspection commission or disciplinary inspection members are to be set up or set up for a local party group, a legislative entity shall decide the next higher stage.
A regional committee of the General Committee and a regional committee of the Group shall contain members of the training review.
The Central Disciplinary Inspection Commission can accredit a disciplinary inspection group or disciplinary inspectors to central Parties and state bodies if appropriate.
Members of the discipline inspection community or discipline inspectors can attend similar conferences arranged by Party leaders of the parties involved, as non-voting participants.
The Political members and organisations of the institution in question will help their function.
China has staked claims to disputed East and South China Seas islands, pitting itself against Japan and a number of other neighbours. Beijing has also made substantial efforts to regain land on the disputed islands, with satellite imagery verifying the country’s militarisation of those lands.
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